1] Department of Medicine/Dermatology, University of Washington, Seattle Washington, USA  Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle Washington, USA.
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive, polyomavirus-linked skin cancer. While CD8 lymphocyte infiltration into the tumor is strongly correlated with improved survival, these cells are absent or sparse in most MCCs. We investigated whether specific mechanisms of T-cell migration may be commonly disrupted in MCC tumors with poor CD8 lymphocyte infiltration. Intratumoral vascular E-selectin, critical for T-cell entry into skin, was downregulated in the majority - 52% - of MCCs , and its loss was associated with poor intratumoral CD8 lymphocyte infiltration). Importantly, survival was improved in MCC patients whose tumors had higher vascular E-selectin expression. Local nitric oxide production is one mechanism of E-selectin downregulation and it can be tracked by quantifying nitrotyrosine, a stable biomarker of NO-induced reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Indeed, increasing levels of nitrotyrosine within MCC tumors were associated with low E-selectin expression and decreased CD8 lymphocyte infiltration. These data suggest that one mechanism of immune evasion in MCC may be restriction of T cell entry into the tumor. Existing therapeutic agents that modulate E-selectin expression and/or RNS generation may restore T cell entry and could potentially synergize with other immune-stimulating therapies.Journal of Investigative Dermatology accepted article preview online, 25 January 2013
Am old enough to understand the difference between the Bay of Pigs - and roasting a pig at a epicurian feast. Been thru the hippy, yippie and yuppie years - always remaining who I am.
Very much believe in "Sing your own song - weave your own tapestry"
Am young enough to still know the thrill of new discoveries, the beauty of the evening, to celebrate the joy of another tommorow.
Survived these many decades with a severe medical problems. Sorting out the maze of now having two lymphomas and all their nasty little companions, but I continue.
Besides, being a simple iconoclastic eclectic, have been called many things. An incurable romanticist - with a strong touch of reality. Thinker, intellectual (God, how I hate that term) - been told I am a lion with the heart of the poet.
Know how to wage war and conquer my foes - but would rather be known as one who brings hope and life. To bring hope into anothers life is the ultimate of joys.
Life should be about bringing hope, peace, vision... a sense of purpose beyond yourself.